Because Northern Ireland is near the central track of such lows, it often experiences high winds. In the north and on the east coast, particularly, severe westerly gales are common.
Above the foot metre level, distorted trees and windbreaks testify to the severity of the weather. Annual rainfall decreases from west to east, although the hills accentuate the amount to some 80 inches 2, mm in parts of the west, and there is as little as A relatively dry spring gives way to a wet summer and a wetter winter.
Daily conditions generally are highly changeable, but there are no extremes of heat and cold. The region is exposed to the ameliorating effects of the North Atlantic Currenta northeastward extension of the Gulf Stream.
In late spring and early summer the east has slightly lower temperatures accompanied by coastal fog. These mild and humid climatic conditions have, in sum, made Northern Ireland a green country in all seasons.
The general features of the vegetation of Northern Ireland are similar to those in the northwest of Britain. The human imprint is heavy on the landscape and is particularly evident in the absence of trees.
Most of the land has been plowed, drained, and cultivated for centuries. Above the limit of cultivation, rough pastures are grazed extensively, and beyond them lies a zone of mountain vegetation.Agency management marketing services companies
Only about 5 percent of the land is now under forest, and most of this has been planted by the state. Young trees in these plantations are economically unimportant, but locally they help to diversify the landscape. The fauna of Northern Ireland is not very different from that of Great Britain. There are, however, fewer species of mammals and birds. Only two mammals—the Irish stoat and the Irish hare—and three species of birds are exclusively Irish.
The region is rich in fish, particularly pike, perch, trout, and salmon; the first is the only fish introduced in historic times. As a result of ongoing concern with conservation, there are some 40 nature reserves and several bird sanctuaries controlled by the Ulster Wildlife Trust and by the Department of the Environment. The region has had lasting links with parts of western Scotlandstrengthened by constant population movements.
After the Tudor invasions and particularly after the forced settlements, or plantations, of the early 17th century, English and Scottish elements were further differentiated from the native Irish by their Protestant faith. The settlers dominated County Antrim and northern Downcontrolled the Lagan corridor toward Armaghand also formed powerful minorities elsewhere. This situation contributed to the decline of spoken Irish Gaelicand it is reflected in the contemporary distribution of religions. The accents with which Northern Irish people speak English are regionally distinctive.
The northeastern dialectdominating the historic counties of Antrim and Londonderry and parts of Down, is an offshoot of central Scottish dialect. The remainder of the area, including the Lagan valley, has accents derived from Englandmore particularly from Cheshire, Merseyside, Greater Manchesterand southern Lancashire, as well as the West Country counties of Gloucestershire, Avon, Somerset, and Devon.
The towns show more of a mixture and an overlay of standard English. Although English is near-universally spoken by everyone in the six counties, Irish also is spoken by a small but significant and growing proportion of the population and is an important element of the cultural identity for many northern nationalists Roman Catholics who support unification with Ireland —even those with limited knowledge of the language.In general, the weather is similar to the rest of the UK, but Northern Ireland tends to have less sunshine and more rain.
The hilly nature of the terrain tends to attract clouds, and westerly winds are common in some areas.Sales compensation challenges and points of view
Extremes of temperature are rare but conditions can be changeable. In broad terms, however, it has an equable climate — the effects of the Atlantic Gulf Stream have a moderating influence, leading to mild winters and relatively cool summers. Similar to the rest of the UK, according to season. Waterproofs are advisable throughout the year.
If you find yourself lacking any vital wardrobe items on arrival — formal or informal — all key towns and cities are well stocked with clothing outlets, with the larger cities particularly good in terms of picking up high quality outdoor equipment. Camping essentials are also straightforward to come by. Northern Ireland contains some beautiful scenery, from the rugged coastline in the north and northeast to the gentle fruit-growing regions of Armagh. To the west are the Sperrin Mountains and the lakelands of Fermanagh, where the winding River Erne provides excellent fishing.
The high moorland plateau of Antrim in the east gives way to the glens further south and to the Drumlin country of County Down; further south still, the Mountains of Mourne stretch down to the sea.
Northern Ireland is still sometimes spoken about as Ulster, despite the fact that it includes only six of the nine counties that comprised the historic Irish province the other three are across the border in the Irish Republic.
Belfast sits in the east of the country, at the point where the River Lagan reaches the sea. This strategic location, being easily accessible from various parts of the UK mainland, was integral to its heritage as a major shipbuilding destination. Introducing Northern Ireland. Plan your trip. Travel to Northern Ireland Where to stay. United Kingdom: Key Info. Book your flights.
Places in Northern Ireland Cities. Ballycastle beaches Bangor beaches Newcastle beaches Portrush beaches.
Northern Ireland Weather, climate and geography
Book a Hotel. All rights reserved Established by the Northern Ireland Act as part of the Good Friday Agreementthe Northern Ireland Assembly colloquially referred to as Stormont after its location holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government.
Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in several areas, and the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Unlike Southern Irelandwhich would become the Irish Free State inthe majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionistswho wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.Aladdin speechless cartoon quotes full life
However, a significant minority, mostly Catholicswere nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern IrelandDavid Trimblecalled a "cold house" for Catholics. The economy of Northern Ireland was the most industrialised of Ireland, declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles,  but economically growing significantly since the late s.
The initial growth came from the " peace dividend " and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism, investment and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, and the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.Chronic kidney disease essay paper
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. The region that is now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century.
Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsalethough, the region's GaelicRoman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English mainly Anglican and Scottish mainly Presbyterian settlers. A rebellion in by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England, Scotland and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland — toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants both Anglican and Presbyterian. Inand contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick Octobera series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, which was felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the laws was to materially disadvantage the Catholic community and, to a lesser extent, the Presbyterian community. In the context of open institutional discrimination, the 18th century saw secret, militant societies develop in communities in the region and act on sectarian tensions in violent attacks.
These events escalated at the end of the century following an event known as the Battle of the Diamondwhich saw the supremacy of the Anglican and Presbyterian Peep o'Day Boys over the Catholic Defenders and leading to the formation of the Anglican Orange Order. A rebellion in led by the cross-community Belfast-based Society of the United Irishmen and inspired by the French Revolution sought to break the constitutional ties between Ireland and Britain and unite Irish people of all religions.
Following this, in an attempt to quell sectarianism and force the removal of discriminatory laws and to prevent the spread of French-style republicanism to Irelandthe government of the Kingdom of Great Britain pushed for the two kingdoms to be merged. The new state, formed inthe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandwas governed from a single government and parliament based in London.
Somepeople from Ulster emigrated to the British North American colonies between and During the 19th century, legal reforms started in the late 18th century continued to remove statutory discrimination against Catholics, and progressive programmes enabled tenant farmers to buy land from landlords. Inafter decades of obstruction from the House of Lordsand with a Liberal government dependent on Nationalist support, Home Rule became a near-certainty.
A clash between the House of Commons and House of Lords over a controversial budget produced the Parliament Actwhich enabled the veto of the Lords to be overturned. The House of Lords veto had been the unionists' main guarantee that Home Rule would not be enacted because the majority of members of the House of Lords were unionists. In response, opponents to Home Rule, from Conservative and Unionist Party leaders such as Bonar Law and Dublin-based barrister Sir Edward Carson to militant working class unionists in Ireland, threatened the use of violence.
Inthey smuggled thousands of rifles and rounds of ammunition from Imperial Germany for use by the Ulster Volunteers UVFa paramilitary organisation opposed to the implementation of Home Rule. Unionists were in a minority in Ireland as a whole, but in the northern province of Ulster they were a very large majority in County Antrim and County Downsmall majorities in County Armagh and County Londonderry and a substantial minority in Ulster's five other counties.
Most of the remaining 26 counties which later became the Republic of Ireland were overwhelmingly majority-nationalist. During the Home Rule Crisisthe possibility was discussed of a "temporary" partition of these six counties from the rest of Ireland. However, its implementation was suspended before it came into effect because of the outbreak of the First World Warand the Amending Bill to partition Ireland was abandoned.
The war was expected to last only a few weeks but in fact, lasted four years.Northern Irelandpart of the United Kingdomlying in the northeastern quadrant of the island of Irelandon the western continental periphery often characterized as Atlantic Europe. Northern Ireland is sometimes referred to as Ulsteralthough it includes only six of the nine counties which made up that historic Irish province.
In proximity to Scotland and to sea channels leading to England and WalesNorthern Ireland has long witnessed generations of newcomers and emigrants, including Celts from continental Europe and VikingsNormansand Anglo-Saxons. In the 17th century, the period of the so-called Ulster plantation, thousands of Scottish Presbyterians were forcibly resettled and English military garrisons built, arrivals that would institutionalize the ethnic, religious, and political differences that eventually resulted in violent conflict.
Since the s, when Northern Ireland was officially separated from Ireland, it has been tormented by sectarian violence. Notwithstanding the peacemaking efforts that began in earnest in the mids, Northern Ireland is still best navigated by those who are skilled in the shibboleths and cultural codes that demarcate its peoples, governing which football soccer team to cheer for, which whiskey to drink, and which song to sing.
The capital is Belfasta modern city whose historic centre was badly damaged by aerial bombardment during World War II. Once renowned for its shipyards—the Titanic was built there—Belfast has lost much of its industrial base. Northern Ireland occupies about one-sixth of the island of Ireland and is separated on the east from Scotland, another part of the United Kingdom, by the narrow North Channelwhich is at one point only 13 miles 21 km wide.
The southern and western borders are with the republic of Ireland. Northern Ireland can be thought of topographically as a saucer centred on Lough lake Neaghthe upturned rim of which forms the highlands. To the north and east the mountains of Antrim physiographically a plateau tilt upward toward the coast.
They reach an elevation of 1, feet metres at Trostanwith the plateau terminating in an impressive cliff coastline of basalts and chalk that is broken by a series of the glaciated valleys known as glens, which face Scotland and are rather isolated from the rest of Northern Ireland. This impressive landscape of granite peaks is bounded by Carlingford Lough to the south. The scenery to the south of Lough Neagh is gentler, but the land rises to 1, feet metres in Slieve Gullion near the border with Ireland.
West of Lough Neagh the land rises gently to the more rounded Sperrin Mountains ; Sawelat 2, feet metresis the highest of several hills over 2, feet metres. The far southwest, the historic County Fermanaghis focused geographically on the basin of Lough Ernein a drumlin-strewn area ringed by hills more than 1, feet metres high.
Much of the landscape of Northern Ireland is gentle, and in most low-lying areas it is covered with swarms of drumlins that have played havoc with the local drainage and are interspersed with marshy hollows.
Glaciation also gave the land its main valleys: those of the River Bann which drains Lough Neagh to the Atlantic Ocean in the north, the River Blackwater in the southwest, and the River Lagan in the east. All these valleys have been important routeways, but none have been more important than the Lagan, penetrating from Belfast Lough to the very heart of Ulster.
Soil s are varied. Although much glacially transported material covers the areas below feet metres in elevation, the nature of the soil is predominantly influenced by the underlying parent rock. Brown earth soils, forming arable loams, are extensive and are derived from the ancient Silurian rocks of the southeast—some million years old—and from the more recent basalts of the northeast.
There are peaty gleys and podzols in the Sperrins, and the impeded drainage of much of the southwest gives rise to acidic brown soil. Peat soils are common, particularly in the hollows lying between the drumlins, and hill peat is widespread throughout Northern Ireland.
Although it is of no great commercial value, peat traditionally has been a source of fuel for the peasant farmer and is still cut extensively. Article Contents. Home World History Global Exploration.Territory of Northern Ireland lies in the zone of moderate climate adjusted to features of the island. There are more showers in western regions than on the east of the country.
Warm waters of Gulf Stream smooth weather a bit. However weather in Northern Ireland is duller than in rest of Great Britain. In general summer is warm and winter is mildly cold with rare snow.
Begging of spring in Northern Ireland is definitely cold. Western and eastern regions are still blown by raging winds but precipitation slightly decreases. Central regions are even colder for they located mostly on plains where cold air falls. At April and May there is gradual warming. In coastal areas amount of sunny days grows. Blossoming starts in parks and on flowerbeds there are blooming daffodils. So Northern Ireland is quite popular at the season even despite frequent showers.
May 7 — Early May Bank Holiday. May 28 — Spring Bank Holiday. Plus Easter celebrations at March-April. Bright sun, clear sky and heat are having no deal to summer in Northern Ireland. Things are more discreet. Amount of daylight hours is about 6 but frequent rains almost never leave sky completely clear. It is partly cloudy most of the time. Nights are cold so jackets and light wool sweaters surely will be useful.
BELFAST, NORTHERN IRELAND
At summer in Northern Ireland there are peaks of educational tourism and different cruises around Great Britain. Actually best language schools of Europe are open year-round. Also this is the time to visit famous golf courts i.
Royal Country Down and Royal Portrush. At September amount of daylight hours reduces and it gets darker pretty early. Although temperature range is completely bearable dull heavy clouds with frequent rains may bother tourists. The capital is covered by thick fogs with barely a ray of sun in weeks. Scape is bleak. Bare branches are waving on strong winds under thick low grey clouds.
Below there are evenly distributed layer of slush. Considering temperature winter in Northern Ireland counted as mild.Today, June 6, marks the 76th anniversary of the Normandy invasion that signaled the beginning of the end of the Second World War in Europe. Read More: Irish weather woman who helped save D-Day from disaster profiled in new documentary. The Irish Independent reported that evidence from Met Eireann forecasters reveals how the Blacksod day forecast changed the course of history.
Despite years of planning, in the days leading up to the attack, the Allied invasion would depend on one crucial and uncontrollable factor - the weather. Although separate observations were taken at various locations by Royal Air Force, Royal Navy and the United States Army Air Force meteorologists, an accurate forecast from the Irish Meteorological Service, based on observations from Blacksod on Mullet peninsula would be the most important.
According to the Irish Independent, Blacksod was the first land-based observation station in Europe where weather readings could be professionally taken on the prevailing European Atlantic westerly weather systems.
The Normandy invasion was originally planned for June 5. Nearly 5, ships and over 11, aircraft would carry approximatelytroops into battle on the day across a mile beachfront and into the interior of the Cotentin peninsula. However, British and American forecasters could not agree on the likely weather conditions for the planned date. According to the memoirs of Scotsman James Stagg, the chief meteorologist for the Normandy Landings, by June 2, the Americans were optimistic for a 'go' on June 5, whilst the British were "unmitigatedly pessimistic.
Then, in the early morning hours of June 3, Irish Coast Guardsman and lighthouse keeper Ted Sweeney sent his hourly weather observation report, containing a warning of "a Force 6 wind and a rapidly falling barometer" at Blacksod. Eisenhower postponed the invasion to Tuesday, June 6. Sweeney, who died insaid in an interview from "I was sending an hourly report 24 hours a day and night.
It had to be phoned into London, Dunstable. We got a query back. I thought I had made some error or something like that. They sent a second message to me about an hour later to please check and repeat again. I thought this was a bit strange so I checked and repeated again. It never dawned on me that this was the weather for invading or anything like that.
Met Eireann analysis has confirmed that the Sweeneys' June 3 reports from Blacksod indicated a cold front lying halfway across Ireland and moving rapidly south eastwards and that a deep depression lay between Iceland and Scotland. Gale-force winds, low clouds and heavy showers would still be affecting the English Channel in the early morning hours of June 5.
On June 4, the Sweeneys sent a report saying that heavy rain and drizzle cleared, cloud at ft and visibility on land and sea very clear. An hour later, Blacksod would receive full clearance of the weather. The following day, at Eisenhower's morning briefing, the latest report from Blacksod confirmed the passage of a cold front at Blacksod at noon on June 4 and confidence was restored, reports the Irish Independent. D-Day would be on June 6. Related: Weather. Toggle navigation.
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How Irish folklore inspired the black cat superstition. Win a dream trip to Ireland with Tourism Ireland. Top ten Irish Christmas traditions - old fashioned and modern Ireland combined.Germany has the second largest population in Europe after the European part of Russia and is seventh largest in area. Between lie the forested uplands of central Germany and the low-lying lands of northern Germany lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande at 3.
Germany shares borders with nine European countries, second only to Russia: Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Switzerland its only non- EU neighbor and Austria in the south, France in the southwest and BelgiumLuxembourg and the Netherlands in the west. Germany also shares a maritime border with Sweden in the north and the United Kingdom in the northwest. Germany is in Western and Central Europebordering Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south, France and Luxembourg in the south-west, and Belgium and the Netherlands in the north-west.
It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 63rd largest in the world. The northern third of the country lies in the North European Plainwith flat terrain crossed by northward-flowing watercourses ElbeEmsWeserOder.
Wetlands and marshy conditions are found close to the Dutch border and along the Frisian coast. Sandy Mecklenburg in the northeast has many glacier-formed lakes dating to the last glacial period.Northern Ireland vs Germany: the friendliest game of Euro 2016?
Moving south, central Germany features rough and somewhat patternless hilly and mountainous countryside, some of it formed by ancient volcanic activity. The Rhine valley cuts through the western part of this region.
The central uplands continue east and north as far as the Saale and merge with the Ore Mountains on the border with the Czech Republic. South of Berlinthe east-central part of the country is more like the low northern areas, with sandy soil and river wetlands such as the Spreewald region.
The Alps on the southern border are the highest mountains, but relatively little Alpine terrain lies within Germany in southeastern Swabia and Upper Bavaria compared to Switzerland and Austria. The Black Foreston the southwestern border with France, separates the Rhine from the headwaters of the Danube on its eastern slopes. Instead, there is a stronger west—east cline in temperature.
This is explained by the North's flat and open landscapes and its closeness to the sea, and South's higher terrain, larger distance from the sea, and the Alps. These mountains prevent much of the usually warmer Mediterranean air blowing into southern Germany. To the north of the Alps and the Carpathiansthe local climate becomes colder, even at the same latitude and altitude.
This is caused by some areas being further away from the Atlantic Ocean 's Gulf Streamknown for having a warm current for its latitude, in addition to being closer to Russia 's and Siberia 's extremely cold winter winds.
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